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german resistance after ww2

The Nazi called this directive the ‘Werewolf Movement.’. 25 March 1945 – Under the code name Unternehmen Karneval, 28 March 1945 – The mayor of the eastern Ruhr town of, 30 March 1945 – Radio Werwolf claimed responsibility for the death of Major General, 22 April 1945 – Radio Werwolf claimed that a Werwolf unit composed of German citizens from, 5 June 1945 – It has been claimed that the destruction of the, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 07:53. When France was over-run in 1940, a very active and organized resistance arose. The original plan was to create an elite group of military men behind enemy lines, to operate secretly, using guerrilla tactics as the Allies Commandos had done. In effect, the Nazi political structure was totally dismantled by the end of the war and did not re-emerge as a political force elsewhere. [53], In the Soviet occupation zone, thousands of youths were arrested as "Werwolves". The only course left is for Japan’s one hundred million people to sacrifice their lives by charging the enemy to make them lose the will to fight.”. Counter Intelligence Corps History and Mission in WWII, "G-2 Periodic Report No. After it became clear, by March 1945, that the remaining German forces had no chance of stopping the Allied advance, Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels seized upon the idea of Werwolf, and began to foster the notion, primarily through radio broadcasts, that Werwolf was a clandestine guerrilla organization comprising irregular German partisans, similar to the many insurgency groups which the Germans had encountered in the nations they occupied during the war. Operation Werwolf went so far as to establish front companies to ensure continued fighting in those areas of Germany that were occupied (all of the "front companies" were discovered and shut down within eight months). [51] The presence of Werwolf activities create fear and uncooperativeness among the occupied German population. Mark Mazower, Hitler's Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe, at 546 (The Penguin Press 2008), "Hoo, Hoo, Hoo,' Lily the Werewolf Sings on Radio,", "NAZI UNDERGROUND IN ACTION, FOE SAYS: German Radio Asserts It Is Fighting in Occupied Areas, Issues 'Do or Die Order,'", Lens Claire, "La guerre au pays des frontières", unedited, "Werewolves' Nuisance Value May Be Great,". Eisenhower. This last German unit from World War II was finally stood down on June 23, 1946 only 14 months after the end of the war in Europe. No routes of escape had been planned. They did all this despite suffering terrible reprisals, such as those handed out at Vassieux-en-Vercors in 1944 where the German forces executed more than 200 villagers, including women and children. [69] This did not prevent his political opponents from disagreeing with him, using Biddiscombe's book as a source.[70]. [59] On March 31 Eisenhower told Roosevelt, "I am hopeful of launching operations that should partially prevent a guerrilla control of any large area such as the southern mountain bastions". Ultimately, Werwolf's propaganda value far outweighed its actual achievements. Using an alleged link with the group as cover they were able to reroute a train of "refugees" (Belgian and French Nazi collaborators running away from justice) from Innsbruck back to Switzerland and then Brussels. This was highlighted by Operation Ketsugō, which was the planned defense of the Japanese homeland. It was led by a charismatic and dedicated leader — Chancellor Adolf Hitler — who surrounded himself with idealistic and driven men like Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Goring, and Heinrich Himmler. Walls and roof are reinforced with lumber. Food consisting of canned meat, biscuits, crackers, chocolate, and canned vegetables was sufficient for over four months. Also there was no natural or safe place to set up a government in exile. Indeed, Celle's local newspaper began serialising Der Wehrwolf in January 1945. Their armed forces were scattered and in disarray across South-East Asia. [64][65] In speeches given on 25 August 2003 to the Veterans of Foreign Wars by National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld parallels were drawn between the problems faced by the coalition's occupation forces in Iraq to those encountered by occupation forces in post-World War II Germany, asserting that the Iraqi insurgency would ultimately prove to be as futile in realizing its objectives as had the Werwolfs. As for Japan, it would still have American troops based on its soil over 70 years later but as allies not as occupiers. Nevertheless an organization had been started using the younger boys but it had not progressed to accumulating either weapons or supplies before the entry of the Allied troops...The only remaining fraction of the Werwolf that was of any importance was a residue of veterans of the last war who were physically ineligible for service in this one and who had weapons concealed here and there. Despite such propaganda, however, this was never the actual nature of Werwolf, which in reality was always intended to be a commando unit comprising uniformed troops. Posted Thursday, May 25, 2006. Of those accused, 4,400 were convicted and resulted in around 1,000 executions. Werner Naumann was a top Nazi official in the Department of Propaganda. He concludes that the only significant achievement of the Werwolfs was to spark distrust of the German populace in the Allies as they occupied Germany, which caused them in some cases to act more repressively than they might have done otherwise, which in turn fostered resentments that helped to enable far right ideas to survive in Germany, at least in pockets, into the post-war era. Both of their economies and war machines were totally destroyed. On 16 September 1944, it was relocated to the town of Thürenberg, Czechoslovakia. Their hatred and their anger ... are deeply buried in their blood. [citation needed] However, as it became clear that the reputedly impregnable Alpine Fortress, from which operations were to be directed by the Nazi leadership if the rest of Germany was occupied, was yet another delusion, Werwolf was converted into a terrorist organisation in the last few weeks of the war. [52] Biddiscombe estimates the total death toll as a direct result of Werewolf actions and the resulting reprisals as 3,000–5,000. "[49] The British were "mortified by such a suggestion", but the War Department took considerable account of Eisenhower's wishes. Such an outcome did not leave the German people feeling as bitter and humiliated as they had after World War One. Additional food supplies such as bread, potatoes, fresh vegetables, and smoked sausages were obtained from local sources. They carried out attacks, acts of sabotage, produced underground newspapers, provided intelligence to the Allies, and created escape networks for Allied airmen trapped behind enemy lines. Germany was occupied, colonized by USA and heavily castrated by USSR and generally dismembered by allies immediatly after the ww2 for a reason. [54] On 22 June 1945, Deputy Commissar of the NKVD Ivan Serov reported to the head of the NKVD Lavrentiy Beria the arrest of "more than 600" alleged Werwolf members,[56] mostly aged 15 to 17 years. 262, 3 May 1945, XII Corps HQ,". [6], In 1942 Adolf Hitler named the OKW and OKH field headquarters, at Vinnytsia in Ukraine, "Werwolf",[7] and Hitler on a number of occasions had used "Wolf" as a pseudonym for himself. "Obituary: Oscar M. "Mel" Grimes Jr., 80, "Bemedaled Ex-Nazi Youth Home from Europe Wars,", "America's Role in Nation-Building From Germany to Iraq", "Relations between allied forces and the population of germany". Just like Germany, there was no natural or safe place to set up an effective government in exile and, even if there had been, there seemed to be no obvious person to run it. The truth of the matter was that the country was now so economically reliant on the Allies that it would have been total madness to bite the hand that now fed them. On 28 April 1945 Staff Sergeant Ib Melchior of the US Counter-Intelligence Corps captured six German officers and 25 enlisted men dressed in civilian clothes, who claimed to constitute a Werwolf cell under the command of Colonel Paul Krüger, operating in Schönsee, Bavaria. [54] The arrested boys were either "shot at dawn" or interned in NKVD special camps. After the devastation of years of fighting, the German and Japanese surrendered unconditionally at the end of the Second World War. Was this enough to break the will of the Japanese people or were they simply obeying the divine wish of their emperor who many saw as a living God? [37] He also notes that: "The Americans and British concluded, even in the summer of 1945, that, as a nationwide network, the original Werwolf was irrevocably destroyed, and that it no longer posed a threat to the occupation.

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