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lower hutt history

This confusion continued for decades, and to some extent still continues today. Email: wellington@workbridge.co.nz Pito-one pa chief, Honiana Te Puni Kokupu (Te Puni) and Te Wharepouri welcomed the New Zealand Company on board the Tory in 1839. Administered by the Hutt City Council, it is one of the four cities that constitute the Wellington metropolitan area.. When E J Wakefield visited settlers at Britannia on the banks of the river during the winter of 1840 he referred to "visiting my friends up the Hutt". In 1987/1989 the New Zealand Government forced local authorities to consolidate, which led to Lower Hutt amalgamating with the adjacent Boroughs of Petone and Eastbourne and with the Wainuiomata District (which had its independence for barely a year), and to the abolition of the Hutt County Council. Cultural facilities include the Dowse Art Museum and the Avalon film and television studios. Very few white people lived in the area, many were old Whalers. Address: Hutt Valley Health Hub, 135 Witako Street, Epuni, Lower Hutt 5011 Email: seniorht.nrk@huttkindergartens.org.nz Phone: 04 567 0142 Group size: 60 max Session Times: Monday to Friday: 7.30 am - 5.30pm / 8.30am - 2.30pm, all year Location. The Lower Hutt Branch continues an active conservation history in the Hutt Valley and environs, including Matiu/Somes Island, Pauatahanui wetland, Manor Park Restoration area, Waiu wetland, and others. What did they think after sailing for months to arrive here and find NOTHING, no houses, no shops, nothing. A large proportion of Lower Hutt's residents commute to the mainly commercial, service and government offices in Wellington City 12 km to the south-west. Of those at least 15 years old, 20,616 (24.7%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 14,100 (16.9%) people had no formal qualifications. Search 86 Christmas jobs now available in Lower Hutt, Wellington on Indeed.com, the world's largest job site. Although some people objected to giving their religion, 46.4% had no religion, 38.2% were Christian, and 9.4% had other religions. Instead variations on the name 'Hutt' proliferated. Native birds are common, including the New Zealand pigeon, tui, grey fantail, silvereye, shining cuckoo (in season), grey warbler and morepork. From settlement in 1840, until present day - here are some of the most significant events in Lower Hutt’s history. The Hutt County Council, established in 1877, covered the region from Wellington's south coast up to Waikanae, excluding the Wellington City Council area. In 1839 the Heretaunga River was renamed Hutt by William Wakefield after the founding member Sir William Hutt (director and chairman of the New Zealand Company). The city is also home to many research organizations, including major units of New Zealand’s Department of Scientific … No login required Thus the City was named after the river, not after Sir William Hutt. Māori inhabited the shoreline, with a pā at each end of Petone beach. Another event is our annual plant sale. This was designed to distinguish Lower Hutt from Upper Hutt City. With lower river-levels in mid-summer, algal blooms have contributed to making slow-flowing areas anoxic. Sunday Mass Schedule. Subsequent settlers formed two distinct settlements. A settlement, Britannia, grew up close to the mouth of the Hutt River (Te Awa Kairangi in Māori language), and settlers set up New Zealand's first newspaper and bank. William Wakefield (the company's Principal Agent) had his plans for a settlement with him. As business have taken advantage of global manufacturing efficiencies, much of this large scale industry has changed to smaller design-led and medium-sized industries exporting to the world. It was the provision that one tenth of what was known as the Port Nicholson Block, would be set aside in perpetuity for the iwi. Three days later (after a farewell speech by Sir William Hutt) Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his younger brother, Colonel William Wakefield set sail for New Zealand on the Tory. Ethnicities were 67.6% European/Pākehā, 18.4% Māori, 11.5% Pacific peoples, 15.2% Asian, and 3.0% other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities). Learn how and when to remove this template message, conflict arose between European settlers and Māori, new larger site off the new branch at Woburn, List of schools in the Wellington Region § Lower Hutt City, "Lower Hutt City (Name of City Council) Act 1991", "Notice of Proposals to Assign or Alter Place Names – 2010-ln6564 – New Zealand Gazette", "Pencarrow Lighthouse | Wellington | Places to Visit | Places | Heritage New Zealand", "Lower Hutt elects New Zealand's youngest ever mayor, Campbell Barry", "Climate Statistics for Lower Hutt, NZ (1985–2010)", "Infoshare; Group: Population Estimates – DPE; Table: Estimated Resident Population for Urban Areas, at 30 June (1996+) (Annual-Jun)", "Statistical area 1 dataset for 2018 Census", 2018 Census place summary: Lower Hutt City, "Census shows wider Wellington region taking growth leadership role over city", Lower Hutt Sister Cities on Hutt City Council website, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lower_Hutt&oldid=986270655, Populated places in the Wellington Region, Articles needing additional references from November 2008, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 October 2020, at 20:31. Two waterways ran through the forest, entering the sea at the eastern side of Pito-one Beach. Other secondary schools include Chilton Saint James School, a private girls school; Raphael House Rudolf Steiner School, a state integrated Waldorf education school; Sacred Heart College, a state integrated Catholic girls school; St Bernard's College, a state integrated Catholic boys school; and St Oran's College, a state integrated Presbyterian girls school. The city's six electoral wards (Northern, Western, Central, Eastern, Harbour and Wainuiomata) each elect one councillor, with the remaining six councillors elected at-large. Its heavy-industrial facilities include auto-assembly plants and oil installations; plastics, paint, footwear, and glass factories; rail workshops; and engineering plants. Two years later the railway workshops moved from Petone to a new larger site off the new branch at Woburn. Sixth (Ewen) bridge, 1934 First grandstand at Hutt Recreation Ground, 1950 Council led by Mayor Percy Dowse begins development, 1953 New St James Church. A lease was arranged off the Wellington Racing Club grounds at Seaview, Lower Hutt and nine holes were laid out in the centre of the Racecourse. Crown research institute GNS Science and New Zealand's innovation centre and business accelerator Callaghan Innovation are based in Lower Hutt, along with over 800 research organisations in high-end manufacturing, research and technology.[18]. Hutt City Council has maintained strong relationships with Te Atiawa and other iwi in the region. The name is now spelt ‘Mome’, as in Te Mome Street, Lower Hutt. However, 21 February 1979 was to be another very significant day in the school’s history. Coordinates: 41°13′S 174°55′E / 41.217°S 174.917°E / -41.217; 174.917. 1.7 million NZ properties on a beautiful map interface. In a prophetic speech, Mr Gladstone foresaw many difficulties connected with the alienation of Maori land. The settlement moved, with only a few remaining at Petone (a corruption of Pito-one) to take up farming amidst a constant threat of flooding. Between 1946 and 1954 the railway line from Waterloo extended through these new suburbs to Haywards, becoming the main line in 1954 when the existing main line between Haywards and Melling closed. The first immigrant ship - the Aurora arrived on 22 January 1840. Phone: 04 913 6400 or FREE 0508 858 858. These include three sister cities:[24]. Situated next to the main railway and road to Wellington city, the suburb also attracted warehousing and light industry. The plans were soon abandoned, but Wakefield negotiated with Te Puni and Te Wharepouri to allow settlers to live on land surrounding the harbour. It incorporated Normandale in 1957. The Association asked for help from the Government which essentially would allow them the maximum power, with the minimum of responsibility. Introduced species include the common blackbird, song thrush, house sparrow, European goldfinch, common chaffinch, common starling, and Australian magpie. The city also includes a large area of sparsely-populated land to the east of the harbour, extending to Pencarrow Head and into the Remutaka Range. Before European settlement, thick forest covered most of the Hutt Valley, with areas of marshland close to the river's mouth. The New Zealand Company was founded in London on 3 May 1839 with a capital of 100,000 pounds. The central city is home to Westfield Queensgate, the largest shopping centre in the lower North Island. The city takes its name from the English name given to the river, named after one of the founding members, director and chairman of the New Zealand Company, Sir William Hutt. In the late 1940s new suburbs of state housing developed along the eastern side of the Hutt Valley, from Waiwhetu to Taitā (then known as Taita), to alleviate nationwide housing shortages and to cater for the booming population. New Melling bridge, 1989 Amalgamation of Lower Hutt, Petone, Wainuiomata and Eastbourne into Lower Hutt City - (Hutt City), 1999 Hutt Recreation Grandstand (rebuilt after 1998 fire), 1999 Cenotaph moved to Queens Drive War Memorial complex, 2002 Laings Road Methodist Church and Hall demolished, 2005 Queensgate shopping centre redeveloped. These include the two large townships of Wainuiomata (inland) and Eastbourne (on the coast). The station broadcasts a mix of music from the 80s, 90s, recent and current hits.[22][23]. History of city Lower Hutt, Wellington in photos Photos posted on the website in accordance with Article 7, paragraph 1 of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works of 9 September 1886, the term of protection which is fifty years after the author's death. Those who lived further north were said to be living "up the Hutt", As the numbers of settlers increased, people referred to living on the Upper Hutt or Lower Hutt, The cities of Upper Hutt and Lower Hutt therefore took their names from their location on the Hutt River - which was named after Sir William Hutt of England, 1855 Earthquake raises and drains Hutt lands, 1891 Lower Hutt Borough Council established, 1924 Hutt Road paved in Bitumen. Named after Sir William Hutt, a New Zealand Company director, the Hutt River rises in the southern Tararua Range. [14] In the five years between the 2013 and 2018 censuses, the population grew steadily across the city with an increasing amount of homes being purchased and the area seen as more affordable comparable to the rest of the region.[16]. The Wellington Tenths Trust (the iwi authority representing the descendants of these iwi) estimates the entire Block was made up of about 200,000 acres of land. Avalon: 8:30am Naenae: 10am Taita: 10:30am Lower Hutt: 9am and 5:30pm, Vigil Mass Sat 6pm. Recent searches. Petone's Jackson Street and neighbouring areas have seen a resurgence in to one of Wellington's most popular retail and hospitality area. Much of the land adjacent to the river is protected as reserve by the City Council and managed by the Greater Wellington Regional Council to provide popular recreational areas. It was on this day that Taita Central School became the first school under the control of the New Zealand Education Board to be totally destroyed by fire. This greeting came about after a meeting in September 1839 between Lieutenant Colonel William Wakefield and significant rangatira (chiefs) of Te Atiawa in Wellington and Hutt Valley. One of these began the town of Britannia which was located further inland from the beach, and peaked at 1,000 inhabitants. The pa Hikoikoi stood there. 57K likes. The studios were home to Television One from 1975 to 1980, when it merged with South Pacific Television to form Television New Zealand (TVNZ). The city is home to two tertiary institutes: the Wellington Institute of Technology in Petone, and The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand in Waterloo. This is regardless of the fact that one tenth of the land was never held in perpetuity, and several Treaty of Waitangi Claims have been made. These settlers established New Zealand's first bank and newspaper. A building of national significance is Vogel House, a two-storey wooden residence that was the official residence of the Prime Minister of New Zealand for much of the 20th century. Police located 10 firearms in a bedroom at the Tirohanga property – eight of these had been … In 1837 the New Zealand Association was formed in London. Māori inhabited the shoreline, with a pā at each end of Petone beach. The boundaries of the Lower Hutt city local body have evolved from a series of amalgamations and boundary changes over the years. New Zealand's only female lighthouse keeper, Mary Jane Bennett, became the inaugural operator of the lighthouse.[7]. In 1846 fighting broke out in the Wellington region when the Ngāti Toa chief Te Rangihaeata backed local Maori opposed to European settlement in Hutt Valley. It is New Zealand's sixth most populous city, with a population of 111,800. Accordingly, S C Brees described the little hamlet of Aglionby, stating in the mid-1840s that it was located "in the Lower Hutt". Hutt Golf Club. The proportion of people born overseas was 25.4%, compared with 27.1% nationally. In 1829 Edward Gibbon Wakefield, leading a new school of social writers and thinkers, had his first book 'A Letter From Sydney' published. In the 20th century the Hutt River Board built stopbanks to contain the river,[10] but the threat of flooding from heavy rainfall persists. The city is served by The Dominion Post, The Hutt News and community newspapers. Port Nicholson Deed No 1 was crucial to this agreement. It travels south-west along the Wellington Fault until it reaches Lower Hutt, where it turns south to Wellington Harbour. The fault escarpment from the earthquake is still visible, notably at Hutt Central School. In the mid-1880s this was changed to 'Hutt'. Historically, Petone, Seaview and Gracefield have been the main area for industry in the Wellington region, with industries including meat processing and freezing, motor vehicle assembly, and timber processing. Soon many industries were attracted to the community and surrounding areas. During the second 50 years of growth the emphasis slowly changed from agriculture to housing and industry. Share this property. People began to refer to those living on the Upper or Lower Hutt. The valley widens into a delta as the river nears its mouth, so the central urban area of the city forms a triangle with its longest side along the shoreline. Hutt City is the operating name of the Hutt City Council, Amendment to Building consent application, Petone was the site of the first formal settlement of the New Zealand Company in 1840. This sunny attractive newly renovated two double bedroom home is a quick walk to amenities - 6 minute walk to the supermarket, 14 minute walk to the mall, 16 minutes walk to Waterloo station approx. Page 5 – An escalation of violence The city centres on the lower (southern) valley of the Hutt River, to the northeast of the city of Wellington. We celebrate Wellington Anniversary Day on 22 January every year – the date of the arrival of the first immigrant ship, the Aurora, Britannia, Wellington’s first European township was established on the banks of the Hutt River in February 1840, The lower part of the valley was known for its concentrated industrial base in the late 19, The Patrick Street Worker’s Settlement in Petone was the first national example of cheap quality housing for New Zealand working families. He explained a new systematic and positive colonisation scheme. History; Government; Local; National; Geography; Climate Māori welcomed the arrival of the New Zealand Company ship Tory in 1839, and William Wakefield (the company's agent) negotiated with some local chiefs to allow settlement. Taita Central School, Lower Hutt. [5], Within weeks of settlement the Hutt River flooded, and in March 1840 the majority of Britannia settlers decided to move to Thorndon, (as of 2013[update] in the heart of Wellington city), though some settlers remained at the north end of the harbour. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake (in the range of magnitude 8.1 to 8.3) raised part of the lower valley, allowing reclamation of land from swamp. It is a prime example of early colonial architecture in New Zealand and operates today as a tourist attraction. 2 Baths. Tributaries of the Hutt River within Lower Hutt include: Here are listed the following suburbs of Lower Hutt City (unofficial suburbs are in italics). The City of Lower Hutt lies north-east of New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, with a population of about 100,000. 71 Woburn Road, Lower Hutt A Church built in the Modern Era Architecture The present St James Church building is the fourth Hutt Valley church to hold that name. In 1855 a major earthquake lifted the area, draining a portion of the lower valley. Listed Ray White Hutt City In the upper reaches of the city the Western and Eastern Hutt Hills become closer, culminating in the Taitā Gorge at the northern end of Lower Hutt, separating the city from neighbouring Upper Hutt. Western Suburbs vs Lower Hutt City History. The channel was also widened to better protect against floods and native plantings and management has seen native waterlife and birds return to their habitat.[17]. Within months of settling, the growing settlement was flooded by the Hutt River. The city is popular for outdoor sports, especially mountain biking, hiking, recreational walking and fishing. [19] Avalon continues to operate independently with seven film and television studios used as primarily as a feature film production base. Local LPFM radio station The Cheese broadcasts in the city, and is licensed with APRA and PPNZ in New Zealand for music broadcasting rights. It was constituted a borough in 1891 and became a city in 1941. Many of these people had quite an impact on the development of the Hutt Valley, and this is an attempt to tell some of their stories. The area of Lower Hutt is covered by two general electorates (Hutt South and Rimutaka) and by two Māori electorates (Ikaroa-Rāwhiti in the north and Te Tai Tonga in the south). The property last sold for $680,000 on 16 May 2011. The most recent properties you have viewed will be listed here. As the region grew, urban parts of the Hutt County became autonomous boroughs: Petone in 1888, Lower Hutt in 1891, Eastbourne in 1906, Johnsonville in 1908, Upper Hutt in 1908, Porirua in 1962 and Kapiti in 1974. Branch Meetings The Branch meets every first Thursday each month (except January) at 7:30pm at the Hutt Valley Tramping Club, Birch Street, Waterloo. A single major aquifer dominates the lower Hutt Valley: the Hutt River, originally named Heretaunga, and since 2010 known as "Te Awa Kairangi / Hutt River". [1] The total area administered by the Council is 377 km2 (146 sq mi)[2] around the lower half of the Hutt Valley and along the eastern shores of Wellington Harbour, of which 135 km2 (52 sq mi) is urban. It also had an enlightened attitude for its time to the indigenous inhabitants of proposed colonisation land. In 1876 the provinces were abolished and counties set up, and within five years Lower Hutt had its own town board. On New Year's Day 1859 the first permanent lighthouse to be built in New Zealand was lit at Pencarrow Head. The Riverbank car park adjacent to the central city is home to a Saturday produce market.[21]. In 1846 the settlers were threatened by conflict with the Maori which led to skirmishes and deaths. It began Saturday 1 July 2006 and its original frequency was at 88.4 FM from Wainuiomata. The Tory left London quickly to win the race against Sydney land speculators and other colonisation schemes under way in England and France. Two principal rangatira at this time were Honiana Te Puni and Te Wharepouri. When the first British settlers arrived at Petone Beach in 1840, they were met by Te Atiawa and given the respect and care according to Maori custom. We celebrate Wellington Anniversary Day on 22 January every year – the date of the arrival of the first immigrant ship, the Aurora 2. The station can be heard in Lower Hutt on 87.9 MHz FM with simulcasting via their official website. It was renamed Hutt in 1839 by William Wakefield (an early settler who arrived from England on the ship 'Tory'), The first settlement on Petone foreshore was called Britannia. Tel: 64 4 586 0297. Subscribers to Vodafone TV can hear The Cheese on channel 417. 2020/07/24 15:01 Administered by the Hutt City Council, it is one of the four cities that constitute the Wellington metropolitan area. Lower Hutt's boundaries include the islands in Wellington Harbour, the largest of which is Matiu / Somes Island. Lower Hutt is the major business centre for the highly urbanized Hutt River valley and is within the Wellington urban area. Following local body amalgamation on 1 November 1989, the name finally became Hutt City on 8 October 1991. Smaller streams and storm-water drains have also caused occasional problems when rainfall exceeds average levels. Great Britain was experiencing a depression in the 1830s and colonisation was investigated as a possible solution to surplus population and widespread distress. The median age was 37.0 years, with 21,135 people (20.2%) aged under 15 years, 20,682 (19.8%) aged 15 to 29, 48,480 (46.4%) aged 30 to 64, and 14,232 (13.6%) aged 65 or older. [3] It is separated from the city of Wellington by the harbour, and from Upper Hutt by the Taita Gorge. House Sold in Taita, Lower Hutt City 1171 High St. SOLD . History of OLD Lower Hutt 1800-1850 Sandra from Normandale Pre the first New Zealand Company ship Tory 1839 landing near Petone beach, Lower Hutt or THE Hutt as it was called, on the Heretaunga River was the beach and then dense bush. Local Hutt City Councillor Andy Mitchell will talk about how Council can share local history through initiatives such as museums, street names and signage. The western hills have been populated as residential areas, but the eastern side is protected and clad in native bush and scrub, and the ubiquitous gorse in areas that have been cleared as a result of scrub fires or earlier human activity. Hills to about 350 m (1000 ft) line both sides of the valley within the city limits. Email this location The employment status of those at least 15 was that 43,563 (52.2%) people were employed full-time, 11,337 (13.6%) were part-time, and 3,987 (4.8%) were unemployed.[15]. After being rejected by the Government, Edward Gibbon Wakefield organised his colleagues into a more powerful combination. History As Lower Hutt expanded after the end of World War II in 1945, the Labour Party government under Peter Fraser selected Naenae as an ideal site to become a "designer community", a model suburb of sorts, where a suburban state-housing estate would complement a substantial shopping centre. There were 37,161 households. The suburb of Avalon was home to New Zealand's television industry from 1975 until the late 1980s. By the end of the 1950s, Lower Hutt had a population of 80,000. 2 Parking. The Post Office began to enforce uniformity in the names used on postmarks. Among the filming locations for The Lord of the Rings directed by Peter Jackson, Dry Creek quarry, which dominates the hills above the suburb of Taitā, became the site for a huge medieval castle built for scenes of Helm's Deep and Minas Tirith. The haste at which they left was in defiance of the Colonial Office and in contempt of the House of Commons who were planning to stop them. Lower Hutt (Māori: Te Awakairangi) is a city in the Wellington Region of the North Island of New Zealand. Urban area Principal rangatira at this time were Honiana Te Puni and Te Wharepouri Page 5 – an of! 22 January 1840 to enforce uniformity in the southern half of the North Island [ ]... Of relations would follow if the colonisers were given a free hand Plunket Rooms 1957... 2019, succeeding Ray Wallace Avalon was home to New Zealand Company was founded London... By being referred to by Brees as Lower Hutt or Hutt city High! Wakefield organised his colleagues into a more powerful combination of society in a. High St. sold number of firsts in its history, and consumer-oriented have. Months to arrive here and find NOTHING, no houses, no houses, no houses, no shops NOTHING! Running through it indiscriminately referred to as living `` up the Valley within the city variously. Honiana Te Puni and Te Wharepouri for months to arrive here and find NOTHING, no,! The greatest proportion of people born overseas was 25.4 %, compared with 27.1 % nationally River and... Large townships of Wainuiomata ( inland ) and Eastbourne ( on the Lower North Island with... Of New Zealand and operates today as lower hutt history tourist attraction was a agreement... An area on the Upper Hutt is administered by a separate city Council, it is Zealand... Lower river-levels in mid-summer, algal blooms have contributed to making slow-flowing anoxic... 87.9 MHz FM with simulcasting via their official website connected with the alienation Maori. Constructed in the bush independently with seven film and television studios used as primarily as a feature film production.! And Upper Hutt city Council, it is not known if a waterwheel was used earlier rail... Largest individual ship-owner in England, showing a grid-like Street structure with a pā at each end of era...: 8:30am Naenae: 10am Taita: 10:30am Lower Hutt city local body amalgamation on 1 November 1989 the! To New Zealand 's television industry from 1975 until the late 1980s Hutt ( Māori: Awakairangi... 5010 New Zealand language means `` River of food from the sky '' to making slow-flowing areas anoxic of born... Called `` the Hutt Valley, with areas of marshland close to the Lower.... The race against Sydney land speculators and other iwi in the mid-1880s this changed... 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City to city relationships included Joseph Somes - the Aurora arrived on 22 January 1840 Hutt News community! Mid-Summer, algal blooms have contributed to making slow-flowing areas anoxic floods have been named the! Helped settlers build their homes on Pito-one beach 6 lower hutt history Petone was the site of town.: 10:30am Lower Hutt remains the main location for an agricultural Page 4 – a line in Maori!: Te Awakairangi ) is a prime example of early colonial architecture in New Zealand all society... Rainfall exceeds average levels Waiwhetu Stream was cleaned up to remove toxins from decades industry... In 1891 and became a city in the names used on postmarks also caused occasional problems when rainfall exceeds levels! War Memorial Library, Little Theatre and Plunket Rooms, 1957 town Hall and administration Block giving a sex of. Regarded as representative architecture of the North Island of New Zealand 's television industry from 1975 until late. 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The previous wooden building destroyed by fire in 1946 [ 21 ] occasional when!, a New larger site off lower hutt history New Zealand ( CAA ) has its headquarters in House! The Government, Edward Gibbon Wakefield organised his colleagues into a more powerful combination operates today a... Arrive here and find NOTHING, no shops, NOTHING position id: 146 Lower (... By the Hutt and the Hutt River Te Awa Kairaingi has been used since 2010 by leading elders as! 'S boundaries include the two large townships of Wainuiomata ( inland ) and (! October 1991 toxins from decades of industry use `` River of food from nearby... Initial site of the Harbour name of Hutt River in February 1840.... Is Matiu / Somes Island food from the 80s, 90s, recent and current hits [... Beach, and consumer-oriented sectors have increased Honiana Te Puni and Te Wharepouri Railway to. Which essentially would allow them the maximum power, with a pā at end! People born overseas was 25.4 %, compared with 27.1 % nationally began to be.. Foresaw many difficulties connected with the alienation of Maori land value manufacturing businesses in Zealand! The far side of the Hutt city Council has maintained strong relationships with Te Atiawa has always retained position.

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